docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are commonly found in fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, sardines, trout, herring, and oysters. Some people also take a combination DHA and EPA supplement. While some research suggests that consuming omega-3 fatty acids can lower blood pressure, the optimal dosage needed to lower blood pressure is unclear.
The National Institutes of Health established adequate omega-3 fatty acids for healthy people at 1.1-1.6 grams per day, depending on age and sex.
“According to our study, the average adult can experience a modest reduction in blood pressure when consume about 3 grams of these fatty acids per day. in Pharmacy at the Macau University of Science and Technology in Macau, China.
The researchers analyzed the results of 71 clinical trials from around the world published between 1987 and 2020.
Studies have examined the relationship between blood pressure and the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA (alone or in combination) in people 18 years of age and older with or without high blood pressure or cholesterol disorders.
There are nearly 5,000 participants combined, ranging in age from 22 to 86 years old. Participants supplemented with dietary and/or prescription fatty acid sources for an average of 10 weeks.
- Compared with adults who did not consume EPA and DHA, those who consumed 2 to 3 grams of DHA and EPA combined omega-3 fatty acids per day (in supplements, foods, or both) had decreased systolic top number) and diastolic (bottom number) mean blood pressure 2 mm Hg.
- Consuming more than 3 grams of omega-3 fatty acids per day may provide blood pressure-lowering benefits for adults with high blood pressure or high blood lipids.
- With 3g of omega-3s per day, systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreased by an average of 4.5 mm Hg for those with hypertension and by about 2 mm Hg on average for those without.
- With 5g of omega-3s per day, SBP decreased by an average of nearly 4 mm Hg for those with hypertension and less than 1 mm Hg on average for those without.
- Similar differences were seen in people with high blood lipids and in people over 45 years of age.
About 4-5 ounces of Atlantic salmon provides 3 grams of omega 3 fatty acids. Difference fish oil supplements contain approximately 300 mg of omega-3 per pill, but the dosage is very different.
“Most studies report on fish oil supplements instead of EPA and DHA omega-3s being consumed in food, which suggests that supplements may be an alternative for people who are not healthy,” says Li. Can’t eat fatty fish like salmon. “Algal supplements with EPA and DHA fatty acids are also an option for those who do not consume fish or other animal products.”
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced in June 2019 that it does not object to the use of certain health claims that consuming the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA in foods products or supplements that can reduce the risk of high blood pressure and coronary heart disease. . However, they note that the evidence is inconclusive and very contradictory.
“Our study supports FDA guidance that the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by reducing high blood pressure, especially in those already diagnosed,” he said. diagnosed with high blood pressure. “However, while our study may add another layer of credible evidence, it does not meet the threshold for making an authorized health claim for regulated omega-3 fatty acids.” by the FDA.”
Limitations of the review include differences in how blood pressure is measured and whether studies have examined omega-3 intake from supplements or diet, which may affect the certainty of conclusions. or not.
The American Heart Association recommends eating two servings (3-4 ounces of cooked) fish per week (especially fatty fish like salmon) as part of a heart-healthy diet.
Co-authors are Xin Zhang, Ph.D.; Dr. Jennifer A. Ritonja; Na Zhou, Ph.D.; and Bingshu E. Chen, Ph.D. Authors’ disclosures are listed in the manuscript.
The research was funded by the Macau Science and Technology Development Fund and the Faculty Research Grant of the Macau University of Science and Technology.