Efficacy of COVID vaccine against child mortality remains high regardless of variant

Children vaccinated against covid

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The effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine in preventing death remains high in children and adolescents regardless of the predominant circulating variant, a large study from Argentina published by BMJ today.

In spite of effectiveness of vaccines For infections that plummet over time, especially during the omicron period, the researchers say childhood vaccination is an important public health measure that will continue to prevent deaths.

It is well known that mRNA vaccines and inactivated COVID-19 vaccines are effective in preventing severe illness and infection in children and adolescents, but mortality data are lacking.

Reduced protection from infection has also been described, especially for mRNA vaccines, but evidence for inactivated vaccines in children is limited.

To fill this knowledge gap, the researchers evaluated the efficacy of two mRNA vaccines (Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech) and the Sinopharm inactivated vaccine. Vaccine against COVID-19-related infections and deaths, as well as short-term immunodeficiency, in children and adolescents.

Their findings were based on data from 844,460 children and adolescents (ages 3-17) from Argentina’s National Surveillance System and Designated Federal Immunization Registry.

Argentina to start vaccinating adolescents (12-17 years) in August 2021 and children (ages 3-11) in October 2021.

Participants are grouped by vaccination status before being tested for COVID-19 (by PCR or rapid antigen test) at a medical center between September 2021 and April 2022 when BA.1 delta and omicron variants predominate in Argentina.

Fully vaccinated children 12-17 years of age have received two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech and/or Moderna vaccines, and fully vaccinated children 3-11 years of age have received two doses of Sinopharm vaccine . The median time from the second dose to the trial was 66 days for 12-17 year olds and 54 days for 3-11 year olds.

Those who tested positive (cases) were matched against those who tested negative (controls) by age, sex, region of residence, week of testing, type of test, and existing health status. After matching, 139,321 cases with corresponding controls were included for analysis.

The results showed that the estimated efficacy of the vaccine for COVID-19 infection was 61% in children and 67% in adolescents during the deltaic period and 16% and 26% in the omicron period, respectively.

Vaccine efficacy declines over time, especially in the omicron phase, from 38% 15-30 days after vaccination to 2% after 60 days or more in children and from 56% to 12% in children. Teenager.

The effectiveness of the vaccine on deaths related to COVID-19 infection during the omicron period was 67% in children and 98% in adolescents.

This was an observational study, and as such, cause cannot be established. The researchers also acknowledged that some information, such as symptoms and number of hospitalizations, was incomplete. They could not rule out the possibility that other unmeasurable (confounding) factors may have influenced their results.

However, their results were consistent after further analysis to assess the impact of different vaccines and tests, and were consistent with the results of other similar studies. found that they have powerful abilities.

As a result, the researchers say that vaccination is effective in preventing deaths in children and adolescents with COVID-19 regardless of the circulating variant.

The vaccine is also effective in preventing COVID-19 infection in children and adolescents in the short term, although there has been a significant decline over time, especially during periods omicron predominate, they added.

In summary, childhood immunization is an important public health measure that helps prevent mortality in this population, especially during periods of high virus circulation.

More information:
Efficacy of mRNA-1273, BNT162b2 and BBIBP-CorV vaccines on childhood infection and mortality in Argentina, during a period of predominance of covid-19 delta and omicron variants: negative test, case study, BMJ (2022). DOI: 10.1136/bmj-2022-073070

quote: The effectiveness of the COVID vaccine on mortality remains high in children regardless of variant (2022, 30 November) retrieved 30 November 2022 from 2022-11-efficiency-covid-vaccines- death-high.html

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