Drinking 2-3 cups of coffee a day can help prolong life.
Research shows that when compared to avoiding coffee, it is also associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.
The study’s findings apply to ground, instant, and decaffeinated versions of the drink, and the researchers suggest that coffee consumption should be considered part of a healthy lifestyle.
Published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, it shows the greatest reduction in risk seen with two to three cups per day.
Compared with no coffee, it was associated with 14%, 27%, and 11% lower mortality over the study’s 12.5-year period for decaffeinated, ground, and instant preparations. corresponding.
Study author Professor Peter Kistler of the Institute of Diabetes and Heart Baker, Australia, said: “In this large observational study, instant coffee and decaffeinated coffee were associated with equivalent reductions in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease or any cause.
“The results suggest that drinking ground coffee, instant coffee and decaffeinated coffee in moderation should be considered part of a healthy lifestyle.”
The study investigated the link between different types of coffee and heart rate, cardiovascular disease and mortality using data from the UK Biobank study – which recruited adults aged 40 to 69 years old.
Cardiovascular disease includes coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, and ischemic stroke.
Professor Kistler said: “Caffeine is the best known ingredient in coffee, but this beverage contains more than 100 bioactive ingredients.
“It is likely that non-caffeinated compounds are responsible for the positive relationships observed between coffee intake, cardiovascular disease, and survival.
“Our findings indicate that drinking small amounts of coffee of all types should not be discouraged but can be enjoyed as a good cardiovascular behavior.”
About 449,563 people completed a questionnaire asking how many cups of coffee they drink per day and whether they usually drink instant coffee, ground coffee or decaffeinated coffee.
They are then broken down into six categories of daily consumption, including zero, less than one, one, two to three, four to five, or more than five cups per day.
The researchers found that 27,809 (6.2%) people died during the 12.5-year follow-up period.
While all types of coffee were associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease, the lowest risk was seen in those who drank up to three cups per day.