COVID-19 infection is associated with a higher risk of poor cardiovascular health and death

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COVID-19 infection is associated with an increased risk of poor cardiovascular health and death, particularly in people with infections so severe that they require hospitalization, a major UK Biobank study, published online magazine online Heart.

The risk, independent of known contributing factors, was greatest within the first 30 days of infection, but remained elevated for some time afterward, the results showed.

Emerging evidence suggests that people who have been infected with COVID-19 have an increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular problems. But these studies tend to be mostly retrospective, including only some health resultsand excludes consideration of the severity of COVID-19.

To further explore these issues, the researchers recruited 53,613 UK Biobank participants, 17,871 of whom were diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 2020 and March 2021, and 35,742 of those don’t.

COVID-19 cases include more men, less affluence, and poorer cardiometabolic profiles.

The UK’s Biobank tracks the health and survival of its participants through medical record and death registration data.

Of the 17,871 COVID-19 cases, 2,701 required hospitalization for the infection; 866 people were hospitalized for another condition; and 14,304 people did not need hospital treatment.

All participants were followed until a cardiovascular problem arose, they died, or until the end of March 2021, providing an average of 141 days of follow-up, but ranging from 32 to 395.

Cardiovascular outcomes considered included heart attack; The hit; heart failure; atrial fibrillation (irregular heartbeat); VTE (blood clot in a vein); pericarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart); death from any cause; death from cardiovascular disease or myocardial ischemia.

Compared with their matched peers, those who did not have the virus, who did not claim hospitalize for COVID-19 infection the risk of developing a blood clot in a vein (VTE) is nearly 3 times higher and the risk of dying from any cause is 10 times higher.

But those hospitalized for COVID-19 were at higher risk for all outcomes considered regardless of potentially influential demographic and cardiometabolic factors.

They were 27 times more likely to develop VTE, 21.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with heart failure, and 17.5 times more likely to have a stroke. And the risk of newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation is nearly 15 times higher, pericarditis is nearly 14 times higher, and heart attack is nearly 10 times higher.

The risks of all outcomes were measured among those admitted for other reasons but those with COVID-19 were also higher than those without the virus.

But their risk of dying from any cause was lower than that of people receiving COVID-19, even though their risk of cardiovascular or ischemic heart disease higher, which may be related to the initial reason for hospitalization rather than COVID-19 itself, the researchers suggest. They are also at high risk for atrial fibrillation and heart attack.

Unsurprisingly, mortality is higher among people infected with COVID-19: Those who were acknowledged to have the virus as a primary cause were 118 times more likely to die than those who did not need treatment at the hospital. hospital, while those for whom COVID-19 was a secondary diagnosis were 64 times more likely to die.

Most diagnoses of cardiovascular disease, especially atrial fibrillation, VTE, pericarditis, and death from any cause occurring within the first 30 days of infection and among those hospitalized for COVID-19 as the primary reason.

But the high risk persists after 30 days, especially for heart failure, atrial fibrillationVTE, pericarditis, and all-cause mortality, although to a lesser extent.

This is an observational study, so no definitive conclusions can be drawn about cause and effect. The analysis also did not consider other potentially influential factors such as the impact of vaccination, new virus variants or mass infections.

But the researchers note, “Long-term sequelae of past COVID-19 exposure are emerging as a major public health concern. Our findings highlight cardiovascular risk increased in people who have had the infection, potentially higher in countries with limited access. vaccination and therefore more exposed populations to COVID-19.”

They added, “Such risks are almost exclusively limited to those with illness requiring hospitalization and are highest in the early (first 30 days) of infection.”

In a linked editorial, doctors from the Center for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, UK, review the therapeutic implications of this finding.

They write: “The thrombogenic effects of COVID-19 raise the question of whether antithrombotic strategies are needed to prevent this large redundancy of events. “Perhaps a broader question is whether antithrombotic therapies should be considered in all individuals, including initiation of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapies.”

They conclude: “Clearly, duration of treatment is relevant, and these data raise the question of whether 7 days of prophylactic anticoagulation is sufficient for patients with COVID-19.”

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More information:
Cardiovascular disease and fatal sequelae of COVID-19 at the UK Biobank, Heart (In 2022). DOI: 10.1136 / heartjnl-2022-321492

Journal information:

Quote: COVID-19 infection associated with high risk of poor cardiovascular health and death (2022, October 24) retrieved October 24, 2022 from -10-covid-infect-linked-heightened-poor. html

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